Wednesday, April 7, 2010


French classical menu comprises thirteen courses arranged in a particular sequence or pattern. In professional menu planning for lunch or dinner dishes are selected from the thirteen courses and arranged in the same sequence The thirteen courses and their examples are discussed hereunder.


These are also referred to as horsd’oeuvres in French. They are served at the beginning of a meal particularly in lunch. They traditionally comprise small amount of tidbits which are tangy in taste and are served to stimulate the appetite for the future courses to come. Horsd’oeuvres are divided into two different types. They are:

1. Classical horsd’oeuvres.
2. Horsd’oeuvres/ Horsd’oeuvre varies.

Classical horsd’oeuvres-- These are very expensive and each has a unique standard of service. When served they are not served accompanied with any other starter. Hence they are also referred to as single horsd’oeuvres. Since they are served as substitute to the inexpensive horsd’oeuvres they are also referred to as horsd’oeuvre substitute..Each classical starter or horsd’oeuvre has it’s unique standard of service. Unique standard of service mean
a) Each has it’s own unique set of cutlery to eat.
b) Each has it’ own set of accompaniments.
c) Each of them is served in a style typical to only itself.

Following are the examples of some of the classical horsd ‘oeuvres.

Non-vegetarian classical horsd’oeuvres:

1. Caviar. In French it is referred to as “caviare”.
2. Smoked salmon. In French it is referred to as “Saumon fume”.
3. Smoked trout. In French it is referred to as “Truit fume”.
4. Smoked Eel. In French it is referred to as “Anguille fume”.
5. Ham mousse. In French it is referred to as “Mousse de jambon”
6. Snails. In French called “Escargot”
7. Oysters. In French called “Les huitre”
8. Potted shrimps.
9. Gull’s egg. In French it is called “Oeuf de mouette”
10. Fresh prawns. In French called as “Les crevette rose”
11. Pate de foie gras.
12. Shell fish cocktail.


1. Grapefruit cocktail In French it is called “Cocktail de pamplemousse”
2. Tomato juice. In French called “Juice de tomate”
3. Asparagus. In French referred to as “asperges”
4. Corn on the cob. In French referred to as “Mais naturel”
5. Globe artichoke. In French referred to as “Artichaut”
6. Avocado. It is referred to as “Avocat”
7. Chilled melon. In French it is referred to as “Melon frappe”

Horsd’oeuvre varies:.

They are not as expensive as classical horsd’oeuvres. They normally comprise tangy tidbits prepared from leftovers from other main meat., fish, poultry and vegetable preparations. When they are served they are served in combination with other horsd’oeuvres, hence referred to as horsd’oeuvre varies. When they are served to the guest they are often presented in a trolley or a tray. The tray or the trolley has individual compartments called ravier which contains the horsd’oeuvres from where the starters are served with the help of a tea spoon. Every ravier contains a separate teaspoon. When horsd’oeuvres are served they are traditionally accompanied by oil and vinegar cruet. Oil and vinegar cruet is also referred to as horsd’oeuvre varies cruet. All horsd’oeuvres (not classical horsd’oeuvres) are eaten with a fish knife and a fish fork.

Examples of vegetarian horsd’oeuvre:

1. Artichoke ala Grecque—Cook small ones in water, lemon juice and oil with fennel, bay leaf, thyme and coriander and serve with some of the cooking liquid.
2. Beetroot Normande—Cut into batons, mix with French dressing and garnish with batons of apple.
3. Pickled red cabbage—Blanch finely shredded cabbage, cover with spiced cold vinegar and use as required.
4. Cole slaw—This is finely shredded white cabbage and carrots and mixed with mayonnaise. Optional additions include gherkins, nuts, onion, pimento, sultanas etc.
5. Carrots Jardiniere—Marinate cooked batons of carrots in a French dressing.
6. Cauliflower Portugaise—Cook florets of cauliflower in a mixture of chopped onions and diced tomatoes in oil with thyme and bay leaf.
7. Celery a la Russe-- Mix batons of celery with grated horseradish cream and mustard.
8. Marinated mushrooms—Cook in a mixture of vinegar, oil, garlic, thyme, bay leaf, fennel and coriander and serve with some of the liquid.
9. Pimento salad—Finely shred green yellow and white pimentos and mix with batons of tomato flesh and vinaigrette dressing.
10. Sweet corn paprika—Mix cooked grains of corn with cream and paprika.

Mixed vegetable salads can also be served as a part of horsd’oeuvre varies selection.
Some examples are as follows:

1. Salad jardinière—Mix equal quantity of batons of carrots and turnip, peas and diamonds of French beans and flavour with vinaigrette.
2. Russian salad—Take equal quantities of 8mm dices of carrots and turnip, peas and diced French beans and mix with mayonnaise.
3. Salad Nicoise—Mix sliced French beans, diced tomatoes and stoned black olives with chopped onions and dressing.

Fish based
1. Bismark Herring- They are soused boned herring usually purchased ready for use.
2. Roll Mops- Roll fillets into paupiettes, pack in jars, cover with vinegar and white wine, flavour with onion rings, bayleaf and keep refrigerated for 3 to 4 days before serving.
3. Herring a la Russe- Cut smoked fillets of herrings into thin slices, arrange on sliced cooked potatoes and sprinkle with chopped chervil, shallots, fennel, oil and vinegar.
4. Kilkis- These are Norwegian anchovies that are served as purchased.
5. Sardines a la crème- Sardines coat with mustard flavored acidulated cream.
Egg based-
1. Egg Aurore- Fill halves of hard boiled eggs with yolk made into a puree with béchamel and coat with cocktail sauce.
2. Egg mayonnaise- Arrange sliced, halved or quartered egg on shredded lettuce and mask with mayonnaise, garnish to choice.

Pasta based-
1. Spaghetti Humbert- Mix with batons of tomato, red and green pimento and flavor with French dressing.
2. Macaroni Milanaise- Mix with juliennes of tongue, mushrooms and truffle and bind with mayonnaise.
Meat based-

1. Beef salad- Mix diced cooked beef with diced potato and tomato, chopped onions and French dressing.
2. Pork trotters- Cut into juliennes and mix with mustard flavored French dressing.
3. Ham cornets- Roll thinly cut triangular shapes slices of ham into cone and fill them with ham puree.
4. Veal’s ears- Cut into juliennes and mix with julienne of gherkins and pimento, mix with French dressing.
5. Sausages- Remove the skin, cut the sausages into very thin round slices and arrange overlapping in a ravier with thin elongated slices of gherkins between each slice.


A liquid food served at the beginning of a meal, or for lunch, a snack etc.
French for soup is soupe or potage .
Originally in France soupe was a slice of bread on which was poured the content of the cooking pot (potage). Soup and potage are almost synonymous although the former is used to designate unstrained vegetable , meat or fish soup garnished with bread, pasta or rice. It is also used for regional or classical soup with bread added to them such as French onion soup.

Soups can be classified into two broad categories. They are :-
1. Thick soups
2. Thin soups

Thick soups are further subdivided basing upon the kind of thickening agent used. Thick soups are further subdivided into the following categories:-
1. Cream soup
2. Puree soup
3. Veloute soup
4. Bisque

1. Cream soup – Cream soup is characterized by the presence of Bechamel sauce is the thickening agent. The basic ingredients can be fish , shellfish , poultry , vegetables or rice etc. Cream soups normally use chervil leaves or croutons as the thickening agent .This type of soup can be made by finishing a puree soup with cream.It can also be made by adding veloute sauce to a puree of veg or meat and finishing with cream. It always used to made by mixing equal quantity of basic puree , Bechamel and stock. Any of the puree and potage soup can be creamed and included under this heading . The resultant soup would be very smooth and creamy .
Some examples of thick soups are:-
• Cream of Tomato soup
• Cream of Mushroom soup
• Cream of Asparagus soup
• Cream of Artichoke soup
• Cream of rice soup
• Cream of Rice soup
• Cream of Almond soup
• Cream of Spinach soup

Cream of Spinach is also referred to as Cream Florentine in Freach. The word Florentine indicates the presence of spinach in the preparation.
Below given are some descriptions and the main ingredient they indicate presence of:-

Description Ingredients they indicate presence of
1. Florentine Spinach
2. Clamart Split peas
3. Du Barry Cauliflower
4. Gumbo Okra
5. Doria Cucumber
6. Portugaise Tomato
7. Nasselrode Chestnut puree
8. Palestine Jerusalem artichoke
9.Crecy Carrots
10. Princesse Asparagus tips
11. Argenteuil Sauce containing asparagus puree
12. Albert Leeks
13. Champenoise Celery
14. Bressane Pumpkin

PUREE SOUP : This category of soup is thickened by the starch content of the vegetable itself , which is used for the preparation of soup . this kind of soup is usually made from a particular kind of vegetable either fresh or dried often with the addition of potatoes or rice if the veg used is not a starchy one. Fresh vegetables are first cooked in butter before adding stock or water. The consistency should be smooth and the colour and flavor very delicate. Some examples of puree soups are:-

1. Puree of Avocado Soup
2. Puree Albert – cook leeks in butter , add stock and potatoes , make into a puree and finish with cream , garnish with juliennes of carrots, celery and leeks.
3. Puree Argenteuil – Stew sliced onion and trimmings of asparagus in butter, cook in stock, make into a puree , finish with cream and garnish with asparagus tips.
4. Puree Celery – Puree of celery and finish with butter and cream and garnished with diced celery.

VELOUTE SOUP: This category of soup is made by cooking cut meat or vegetables in Veloute sauce made with chicken or veal stock. After being pureed, the soup is thickened with liaison of egg yolk and cream after which it must not be allowed to boil. The velvety smoothness of fine flavor is further enhanced by the addition of butter . either plain or flavored and colored one.

Examples of Veloute soup :-
1. Artichoke Veloute soup
2. Asparagus Veloute soup
3. Mushrom Veloute soup
4. Chicken Veloute soup

BISQUE: This category of soup is made with pureed shellfish and cream . The shellfish is cooked raw in butter with a mirepoix , flamed with brandy and cooked in white wine and stock with rice as the thickening agent. The shells are crushed and replaced in the soup which is then passed and finished with cream and then butter.

Examples of bisque are :-

1. Shrimp bisque - Bisque de cervettes
2. Crayfish - Bisque de langustine
3. Lobster bisque - Bisque d’homard
4. Crawfish bisque - Bisque de langouste
5. Calamar bisque - Bisque of squid
6. Chicago bisque - Mix bisque of lobster with tomato soup and garnish with seed tapioca and dices of lobster .
7. Potato Americaine - Blend crayfish bisque with cream of tomato soup and garnish with tapioca seeds.


Meat , poultry or fish served hot or cold generally at dinner, at beginning of a meal particularly.
Consomme is traditionally clarified with aggshell.


1. Consomme Royal – Chicken consommé garnished with savoury egg custard cut into any shape.
2. Consomme Celestine – Beef consommé garnished very thin pancakes made with fine herbs in the mixture.
3. Consomme Carmen – A beef consommé made with the flavor of tomato and pimento and garnished with dices of tomato ,juliennes of pimento, rice and springs of chervil.
4. Consomme Mercedes – C0nsomme flavored with dry sherry , garnished with small rings of red pimento and cockscomb.
5. Consomme Ambassadrice – Chicken consommé garnished with dices of thre different types of royals .peas , tomatoes and truffles also diced chicken and mushroom.
6. Consomme Monte Carlo – Chicken consommé garnished with paysennes of carrot truffles,turnips and juliennes of savory pancakes made with fine herbs .
7. Consomme Bonaparte – Chicken consommé garnished with ordinary chicken quenelles.
8. Consomme Nesselrode – Chicken consommé garnished with profit roles half-filled with chestnut puree and onion puree and other half with duxelles.


1.Ajo Blanco – Emulsify almond and garlic in olive oil and moisten with water and served poured over dried slices of bread .
2. Avocado – Cold soup made from puree avocado , lemon juice and chicken stock and garnished with chives and cream.
3. Botvinia - Cold soup from Russia made with from beetroot leaves ,sorrel and spinach , white wine ,tarragon and gherkins and served with ice in it.
4. Chotodriece – Fermented picked gherkins juice garnished with chives , crayfish , dill, diced beetroot and sliced hard-boiled eggs.
5. Cucumber soup – Pureed cucumber with veloute bound with liason and garnished with diced cucumber and shredded sorrel.
6. Gazpacho – Blend raw cucumber , pimento and tomatoes and crushed garlic and and bread emulsified in oil , season with cumin and serve accompanied with chopped onion , diced cucumber , tomato ,pimento and fried breadcrumbs.
7. Okhrochka – Mix hard boiled egg yolks with mustard , cooked mashed potatoes and sour cream and moisten with kyass and diced cooked white of eggs , cooked beetroot , carrot ,pickled gherkins and flavored with dill.
8. Princesse Royale – Mix equal parts of cream of chicken and cream of asparagus and garnish with juliennes of chicken , ham and ox tongue.
9. Ritz – Add concentrated tomato puree to Vichyssoise and finished with chopped chives and chopped tomatoes.
10. Saint Cloud – Add chopped fresh mint to cream of green pea soup and garnish with dices of green pea royale.
11. Strawberry soup – Macerate strawberries with stock syrup , pass through a sieve and then add white wine and lemon juice.
12. Vichyssoise – Stew leek with onion butter , add chicken stock , milk and potatoes and finish with cream and chopped chives.
13. Lilly soup – Garnish cream of chicken soup with chopped stewed sorrel and juliennes of chicken.
14. Consomme Madrilene – Make a consommé with celery , pimento and tomatoes and set with very little gelatine.


1. Avgolemeno – ( Greece) – Mutton stock blended with egg and lemon juice.
2. Minestrone – ( Italy) –An Italian mixed veg soup containing pasta or rice . It is made with pumpkin, cabbage ,broad beans, courgettes , red kidney beans , celery and tomatoes and garnished with three pastas : cannolichi ( small cubes filled with meat and herbs ) ,ditalini (small finger shape0 and penne (feather like) . It is often served with pesto ,which is thick oily sauce made with fresh basil , olive oil, garlic and grated cheese.

3.Gazpacho – (Spain) – The literal meaning of Gazpacho is soaked bread.

5. Bortsch – ( Russia) – A soup based on stewed meat with various veg like beetroot , mushrooms and white kidney beans.
6. Calm Chowder – (U.S.) Stewed diced leeks , onion and salt belly of pork . Potatoes and cooked clam and butter and fish stock, finish with cream and crushed cream craqckers.
7. Linsensuppe (Germany) – Lentil soup flavored with salted pork.
8. Waterzoi (Belgium) – A Flemish speciality compromising freshwater fish and eel cooked in a court buillion with herbs . Hamburg parsley root and veg . The preparation is finished with generous amount of fresh cream and thickened with breadcrumbs sometimes .
9. Cock –e Leekie (Scotland) _ A Scottish specialty whose name literally means cock and leek. It is a substantial soup made with chicken and leek and thickened with barley.
10. Hungarian Goulash (Hungary) – A soup made from beef and potatoes flavored with paprika .
11. Oxtail (England) – A soup made from the liquid extract in which the oxtail has been boiled to which is added lean beef , egg white and aromatic veg tor clarification and garnished with dices of oxtail and brunnoise of vegetables.
12. Mulligatawny (India and Sri Lanks) – It is a chicken consommé to which are added stewed veg (cumin, carrot and celery ) and highly seasoned with curry powder and spices garnished with blanched almonds and coconut cream.
13. Pot e feu (France) – A soup almost a meal in itself made with meat mainly beef and various types of veg in stock water.
14. Polish Bortsch (Poland) –

PASTA (Farinaceous)

This course compromises pasta and rice dishes .

Pasta are made from durum wheat semolina that has high gluten content , water and egg.
In Italy pasta is eaten as a first course , a main course and a garnish to many soups and meat dishes . In France pasta is generally eaten as an accompaniment to the main course .

Pasta can be divided into 2 broad categories.

1. Dried Pasta
2. Fresh Pasta

Dried pastas are generally factory made and thoroughly dried so that it can be stored indefinitely.
Fresh pasta are made in the kitchen itself.

The main types of pastas :-

• Spaghetti – Long thin rod shaped pastas.
• Macaroni – Long and short tubes .
• Fettuccine - Lomg flat strips, ribbon shaped pastas.
• Buccatini – Very thin macaroni .
• Fussili – Long hollow spirals .
• Cannelloni – Large tubes .
• Ravioli – Stuffed squares .
• Agnelotti – Stuffed rounds .
• Farfalle – Bow or butterfly shaped . Linguini -Thin flat ribbon shaped thinner than fettuccine.
• Penne – Angled tubes .
• Ziti – Large tubes .
• Lasagne – Wide flat strip also made in green and red color.
• Rigatoni – Ribbed tubes .
• Manecotti – Smooth tubes.

Some pasta preparations :-

Spaghetti Napolitaine – spaghetti in tomato based sauce comprising tomatoes. Chopped concassed tomatoes , garlic , shallots, basil or marjoram and olive oil .
Note : The sauce that is served with this dish is not Napolitiane Sauce, it is known as Pizzaola sauce.

Spaghetti Bolognaise – Saute chopped and minced beef until brown and sliced mushroom and red wine. Reduce. Add brown sauce and garlic . Cook and pile in ……….. of buttered pasta.

Fettuccine Carbonara – sauté chopped garlic and ham ; add whisked cream . Cook lightly before mixing with the pasta.

Ravioli Arabiata – Ravioli mixed with pimento flavored spicy tomato sauce .

Macaroni Italienne – Tossed drained macaroni in hot butter , season with salt papper and grated nutmeg and fish by adding grated parmesan cheese.

Ziti Levantine – Add cooked Ziti to diced ham and tomato flavored cream sauce.

Farfalle Imperial – Add dices of foie gras , mushrooms and truffles and mixed with Madira Sauce.

Linguini Sicilienne – Make a fine puree of lightly sautéed chicken liver , mix with little chicken veloute and stir in the pasta .

The different rice dishes that are incorporated in this course are :-

Risotto –An Italian rice dish. The rice is fried in oil with chopped onion till golden brown that put in stock. Butter and various garnishes are added such as various veg , cheese , ham , mushrooms etc.
Risotto garnish ala Milanaise, Piementaise etc can be served .

Other rice dishes include:-

Rice ala Creole
Rice ala Grecque – Rice cooked with olive oil , raisin , onion and garlic.
Rice au Gras – Rice cooked with chicken and beef stock .

EGG (Oeufs)

This course does not include preparations like boiled eggs , fried eggs , scrambled eggs , etc. which are served during the breakfast. This course includes the following preparations:-

• Moulded Egg – Oeufs mould – Break into a buttered dariole mould , cook in a bain marie , almost covered with a lid for apporx. 10 mins. The egg should be soft . Turn out and serve .
• Egg Africaine – Serve on slice of ham placed on a round buttered toast, garnish with a spoonful of pilaf rice and some tomato concase .
• Egg Aurore – Place the egg on an oval or round bouchee and coat with sauce supreme colored and flavored with tomatoes
• Eggs Benedictine-Cover a toasted crumper with a round Ox tongue, place the egg on top and cover with sauce Hollandaise.
• Eggs en-cocotte/Oeufs en –cocotte – Break an egg into a buttered egg cocotte dish, cook in the oven in a bain marie of hot water for approximately 6 mins. Cover with a lid. The yolk should still be soft.
• Oeufs en –cocotte bordelaise- Place a poached slice of bone marrow in the cocotte dish when cooked and finish with red wine sauce.
• Oeufs en –cocotte Colbert – Line a cocotte dish with chicken and fine herbs, force meat and eggs .Cook and finish with Colbert Sauce.
• Oeufs en –cocotte Florentine- Place the buttered spinach mixed with diced anchovy in the cocotte dish and eggs.Cover it with grated parmesan cheese, cook and glaze.
• Oeufs sur le plat- Shirred eggs.
• Oeufs sur le plat Alsacienne- Place cooked saurkrat in a Oeufs sur le plat dish, break an egg on top and cook and serve with a slice of hot garlic sausage.
• Oeufs sur le plat bercy- Cook in the usual way and garnish with a pair of small chipolatas and tomato sauce.
• Oeufs sur le plat doria- Garnish the cooked egg with diamonds of sautéed cucumber mixed with cream.

Fish (Poisson)

Deep fried fish preparation:
• Fillet of sole Colbert- Fillet of sole egg washed , rolled in the bread crumbs, deep fried and served with Colbert butter(Maitre d’ hotel butter + meat glaze + chopped tarragon)
• Fillet of pomfret Orly- Fillet of pomfret egg washed, rolled in bread crumbs, frying batter .Deep fried and served with tomato sauce.
• Fillet of Halibut frit- Fillet of halibut egg washed, rolled in bread crumbs, deep fried and served.
• Fillet of Lemon Sole Crawford- Roll the fillet of lemon sole in egg wash , roll in bread crumbs. Deep fried and served with tartare sauce.
• Fillet of cod Bambouche- Fillet of cod egg washed , rolled in bread crumbs, twisted into a spiral, deep fried and served on a bed of buttered macedaine of vegetables.
Shallow fried fish- The basic method of cooking is called a la meuniere.
• Fillet of sole Meuniere- Roll fillet of sole in flour, shallow fry on hot butter, basting it occasionally. .Place it in a dish with a peeled slice of lemon on each fillet sprinkle with lemon juice, pour nut butter all over at the last moment and sprinkle with chopped parsley.
• Fillet of sole Belle Meuniere-Dip in flour, shallow fry in hot butter garnish with skinned tomato, mushrooms, sautéed soft roe and sprinkle with lemon juice and coat with nut butter.
• Fillet of John Dory Benzamine- Fold the fillet of John dory into half, egg wash, bread crumb, shallow fry and place it on a baked potato which is mptied, filled with creamed mushrooms and serve with sauce Americaine.
• Fillet of carp David- Shallow fry the fillet of Carp, sprinkle with bread crumbs, lemon juice and chopped parsley.
• Fillet of dover sole Grand Hotel- Shallow fry fillet of dover sole and garnish with bouquet of sautéed diced potato, artichoke bottoms, cover with nut brown butter and little meat glaze and sprinkle with parsley.

Poached fish preparations-
• Fillet of sole Duglere- Cook fillet of sole in white wine and fish stock with chopped parsley , shallots and tomatoes. Reduce the cooking liquid.
• Fillet of pomfret Bonne Femme- Cook in white wine, fish stock with chopped shallots, parsley and diced button mushrooms. Reduce the cooking liquid , finish with butter and cream. Coat the fish and glaze. A border of cooked sliced potatoes is authentic.
• Fillet of perch Princesse- Coat the poached fish with white wine sauce containing puree of asparagus, decorate with truffles and garnish with nest of duchesse potatoes, filled with asparagus tips.
• Fillet of haddock Walevwska- The name given to fish poached in a fumet, garnished with slices of lobster and thinly sliced truffles and covered with Mornay Sauce. Finish it with lobster butter and glaze in the oven.
• Fillet of dover sole Provencal- Poach the fish in fish stock and oil with chopped garlic, coat with sauce provencal containing the reduced cooking liquid and garnish with tomato stuffed a la provencal.

Grilled Fish preparations :
• Grilled salmon with lemon butter- Pieces of salmon without bone, grilled and served with lemon butter.
• Grilled whitebait Maitre d’ hotel- Grilled whitebait served with pieces of maitre d’ hotel butter.
• Grilled conger eel Nicoise- Cover the grilled slice of conger eel with garlic and tomato and decorate with olives and trellies of anchovy.

Shellfish Preparations:

• Lobster Americaine-Dices of lobster cooked with tomatoes, butter, crushed garlic, shallots and white wine and oil, finally a good helping of brandy.
• Lobster/crayfish/crawfish Newburg- Lobster Americaine with cream and fish stock.
• Lobster/crayfish/crawfish Thermidor- Cooked in bercy sauce or cream. Seasoned with mustard and arranged in two half of the shell,either sprinkled with grated parmesan cheese and gratinated or covered with Mornay Sauce.

Entrée is the first meat course in the French Classical Menu. This course comprises small pieces of meat, which are served with a sauce or gravy. The meat preparation may or may not be with bone.
Some Chicken based entrée are as under-
• Chicken Maryland- Coat with egg wash and bread crumbs, shallow fry and serve with a grilled rasher of bacon, corn and banana fritters grilled tomatoes and served with a horseradish sauce.
• Chicken Marengo- Sautéed chicken garnish with sautéed mushrooms, glazed onions, fried eggs and crayfish tail.
• Chicken sauté chasseur- Sautéed chicken cooked in a sauce made up of demiglaze, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes and white wine.
• Chicken Mexicaine- Sauteed chicken served with tomato flavored demiglaze, which has been mixed with shredded red peppers and garnished with mushrooms, stuffed with chopped tomatoes, sautéed peppers and aubergine pulp.
• Chicken a la rex- Chicken cooked in a veloute containing mushrooms and red and green sweet peppers.

Some beef based entrée are as under-
• Beef Wellington-Seal the fillet of beef in hot fat for 10 minutes.Allow it to get cold. Place it on a bed of duxelle lined on a puff pastry . Envelope the steak in the pastry. Transfer onto a tray and apply with egg wash, bake for 10 mins at around 150 degree C. Slice and serve with Madeira sauce.
• Beef Stroganaff- A preparation of thinly sliced beef, coated with a cream sauce and garnished with mushrooms and onions. Served on a bed of rice.
• Beef Bourgogne- Marinate the joint in white wine and braise it with calf’s foot. Half way through the cooking remove the joint and place it in a casserole with carrots and glazed onions. Complete the cooking in a casserole.
Cold Entrée are as follows-

• Tartare steak- A raw steak made with minced beef, seasoned with salt, pepper and Worcestershire sauce. The meat is shaped into balls and hollowed in the centre. Break an egg into the hollowed part . Arrange 1 tb spoon of chopped onions , chopped shallots and chopped parsley around the meat and serve.
• Entrecote Bordelaise- Grilled entrecote garnished with chopped bone marrow, which is poached in stock and sprinkled with chopped parsley.Serve with Bordelaise sauce. (Espagnole + meat glaze + lemon juice + diced bone marrow + reduction of red wine, shallots and seasonings.)

Mutton based entrée are as under-
• Moussaka- A dish from Greece, made from dices of aubergine arranged in layers alternating with chopped mutton, onion, aubergine pulp often with addition of a thick béchamel sauce. Moussaka is served with a tomato fondue.
• Irish stew- A stew made from mutton and potatoes. Pieces of neck end of mutton are arranged in alternate layers with sliced potatoes and onions. Water is added to the pot and is left to simmer on a very low heat. The traditional accompaniment is pickled red cabbage and Worcestershire sauce.
• Halicot- A stew made from chopped muttons, turnips, onions, potatoes and sometimes haricot beans.
• Mutton cutlet chasseur- Sauteed cutlets of mutton served with a demiglaze containing shallots, mushrooms, tomatoes and white wine.
• Mutton cutlets a la Villeroi- Braise the mutton cutlets and leave them to cool in their stock. Drain them and coat in Villeroi sauce. Then dip them in beaten eggs and roll in bread crumbs. Fry till golden in clarified butterand serve them with perigaux sauce.
Villeroi sauce- Meat stock + white stock + mushroom essence (reduced). The sauce may be finished with truffle essence and puree of tomatoes and onions.
Perigaux sauce-Madeira sauce + chopped truffles.

Lamb based entrée-
• Breaded lamb cutlets- Season the cutlets with salt,peppers and coat them with beaten eggs and roll in breadcrumbs and coat them with beaten egg then with breadcrumbs. Saute on both sides in clarified butter. Arrange them in a crown and sprinkle with noisette batter.
• Lamb cutlets Du Barry- Sauteed or grilled lamb chops arranged in a dish with cauliflower, Mornay on its side.
• Lamb chop Mexicaine- Sauteed or grilled lamb chops cooked and served with a tomato flavored demiglaze to which shredded red pepper has been added. It is garnished with mushrooms stuffed with chopped tomatoes, chopped sweet potatoes and aubergine pulp.
• Lamb brochettes- Boneless cubes of lamb cut from the leg of lamb skewered with alternating slices of blanched lemon and sliced wild mushrooms. Brush with melted butter before grilling. Serve on a bed of buttered rice.
• Grilled lamb cutlets- Season the cutlets with salt and pepper, brush them with melted butter and cook over a barbecue. Arrange on a serving dish, garnish with watercress. Serve sprinkled with lemon juice.

Pork based entrée-

• Grilled pork chops- Season the pork chops with salt and pepper, brush with melted butter and grill either on barbecue. Arrange on a serving dish, garnish with watercress. Serve sprinkled with lemon juice.
• Mother’s creton- A cold preparation made out of minced pork, mixed with chopped onions, garlic, breadcrumbs, milk, chopped parsley, cinnamon, salt and pepper. Mix thoroughly and cook for 2 hrs. Cool and blend in a processor. Put in a buttered terrine and refrigerate until firm.
• Pork chops charcutier- Sauteed pork chops served with a Charcutier sauce. Charcutier sauce is a demiglaze added with white wine, mustard and gherkins. The serving dish should be lined with mashed potatoes.
• Pork chops Alsacienne- Sauteed or grilled pork chops served with braised sauerkraut with bacon and slices of chipolata.
• Pork chops with Robert Sauce- Grilled pork chops served with Robert Sauce. Robert Sauce is a demiglaze with white wine, sugar and mustard.

Offals (Internal edible 0rgans) based entrees
• Haggis- A Scottish national dish consisting of sheep’s stomach stuffed with a spicy mixture of animal’s heart, liver, lungs, onions, oatmeal and mutton fat. The haggis is boiled for 2 hrs in stock. It is served with a puree of turnips or vegetables that have been boiled with it. The traditional accompaniment is Malt Whisky.
• Steak and kidney pie- A British specialty consisting of a hot pie with a filling of lean beef and kidney to which are added onions and mushrooms or sometimes potatoes, hard boiled eggs or oysters.
• Lamb kidney Turbigo- Lamb kidney cut into half, sautéed and garnished with grilled chipolatas , sautéed mushrooms and covered with a sauce made from cooking juice mixed with white wine and tomato flavored demiglaze sauce.
• Calf liver al’anglaise- Thin slices of calf liver sautéed in hot butter. Served garnished with fried bacon, sprinkled with lemon juice, chopped parsley and accompanied with steamed potatoes.

These generally comprises the big joints etc. that must be carved before the guest for service. These are generally the butcher’s joints, which are either roasted or grilled or braised. They are served with their own accompanying sauce and accompanying vegetables.

1. Roast leg of lamb with mint sauce.
2. Roast leg of mutton with onion sauce.
3. Roast leg of pork with apple sauce.
4. Roast shoulder of pork with 5 spices.
5. Roast Milk lamb.
6. Roast loin of lamb.
7. Braised joint of beef.
8. Spit roasted ribs of beef.


It is the interval course and taken after the releve to provide some kind of an interval before the roast is served.
A type of water ice that is softer and more granular than ice cream and it does not contain any fat or egg yolk.
The basic ingredients of Sorbet are-

1. A fruit juice or fruit puree, fruit fumet.
2. Wine, spirit, liqueur or infusion of tea or coffee.
3. Sugar syrup sometimes with the addition of glucose.
The mixture should not be beaten during freezing and when it is set some Italian meringue can be added to give it volume. A sorbet differs from an Italian Granita in having Italian meringue. Granita does not contain any Italian meringue.

1. Peach sorbet.
2. Pear sorbet.
3. Raspberry sorbet.
4. Calvados sorbet.
5. Lemon sorbet.
6. Champagne sorbet.
7. Apricot sorbet.
8. Sugarcane and Champagne sorbet.

During this course the Russian cigarettes are passed to the guest in a formal banquet and hence the ashtray is also passed. Nowadays the sorbets are also served as sweet dishes.

This is the heaviest course in the French Classical Menu and comprises roast poultry, roast game birds and roast game animals. Game birds are called feathered game and game animals are called furred animals. When these dishes are served they are served with their own accompanying sauce, roast gravy and vegetables. Game chips or roast potatoes are commonly served with roast course. A salad is also served along with the roast, which is served in a salad crescent.
Game Animals
a. Large games.
1. Deer or Venison
2. Roebuck
3. Wild boar.
4. Reindeer
5. Hare

Game birds- Woodcock, pheasants, hazel grouse, partridge,, wood pigeon, capercaille, black grouse, lark, garden warbler, thrush, black bird, ortollan plover, wild turkey etc.
Poultry -Chicken, turkey, rabbit, duck, hazelhen etc.
When a roast is planned it is just planned as “Roast chicken or Roast turkey or Roast venison or Roast partridge”.

The game animals are normally served with redcurrant jelly or Cumberland sauce which is Port wine + Orange juice + Lemon juice + Red currant jelly.
Roast game birds are generally served with bread sauce and cranberry sauce.

From here onwards the menu tends to become lighter. Normally all the vegetables that are served as classical hors d’ oeuvres are served here as well. Same accompaniments are also served.
1. Asparagus
2. Artichoke
3. Corn on the cob

Some examples are as under-

• Peach Melba- Created in 1892 by Escoffier when he was the Executive Chef at the Savoy Hotel in London. He dedicated it to Dame Nellie Melba, the famous 19th Century opera singer from Australia. It was first served at a dinner given by the Duke of Orleans to celebrate his triumph. Escoffier first introduced Peach Melba in a menu in 1900 for the opening of the Carlton when he was in charge of the kitchen. Today it consists of poached stoned peach halfs placed on a bed of vanilla ice cream covered with raspberry puree.
• Baba-au-rhum-A cake made from leavened dough that contains raisins and is steeped after baking in either rum or kirsch syrup. The origin of the dish is attributed to the greediness of the Polish King Stanilas Leszcsynski who was exiled in Lorraine who found the traditional kougloaf dough too dry and tried to improve it by adding rum. As a dedicated reader of The thousand and one night. He is said to have named the creation after his very favourite hero Ali Baba.

• Baked Alaska- Also called as Norwegian Omelette and quite similar to Omelette Surprise. An American doctor called Dr. Rumford first invented the recipe of the dish. The dish comprises a base of Genoise sponge soaked in liqueur on which is placed a block of fruit or vanilla ice-cream, the whole thing being masked with Plain or Italian Meringue. This is cooked in a very hot oven for aq very short period of time so that the meringue is coloured but the ice cream is not melted. It is served immediately sometimes flamed.

• Sachertorte- A famous Viennese gateaux created at the Congress of Vienna(1814-1815) by Franz Sacher Metternich’s chief pastry cook. It literally means Sacher’s cake. It is a type of chocolate Savoy cake filled or spread with apricot jam then covered with chocolate icing. It is traditionally served with whipped cream and a cup of coffee.

• Crepe Suzette- A type of sweet pancake flavored with tangerine and coated with a tangerine flavored sauce. In the recipe given by Escoffier tangerine juice and curacao batter are used to flavour the pancake batter and the melted butter and sugar are added to the tangerine juice to mask the pancake.

Henry Charpentier who was to cook at the Rockefeller’s in U.S., falsely claimed to have discovered Crepe Suzette in 1896 at Café de Paris in Monte Carlo as a compliment to the Prince of Wales and his companion whose name was Suzette, but the fact is that at that date Henry Charpentier was not old enough to be the Head Waiter to serve the Prince
• Charlotte- The original Charlotte, which was invented at the end of the 19th Century, is probably in honour of Queen Charlotte the wife of George III of England. It is made from a thick fruit puree flavored with Cinnamon and lemon and poured into a round mould with slightly flared rum lined with slices of buttered bread. The dish is then baked in the oven then turnede out of the mould and served with cold custard cream. The classic example is Apple charlotte.
• Charlotte Russe- Careme invented Charlotte Russe. This is a chilled uncooked dish consisting of vanilla Bavarian cream poured into a charlotte mould lined with a sponge finger. The sponge finger can be soaked in coffee or liqueur before hand. The preparation is allowed to cool and then turned out of the mould.
• Apfel Strudel- One of the most famous Vienniese pastry inspired by the Turkish Baklava. A Hungarian chef created the recipe. The dough is made with a strong (high gluten) flour, is difficult to prepare and handle. It is sprinkled with ground almonds and breadcrumbs, then with the chosen filling and then rolled. The usual filling is an apple.
• Baklava- A cake of eastern origin consisting of several very thin layers of pastry made fron semolina flour, oil and eggs. The pastry is stuffed with chopped grilled almonds, pistachio nuts and walnuts and mixed with sugar and cut into triangle before baking. When they are taken out of the oven, they are poured over with honey or a golden syrup and lemon juice.
Some examples of other sweet dishes are-
Eggless Sweet dishes-
1. Apple tart
2. Jam tart
3. Pineapple flambé
4. Banana flambé
5. Mango fool
6. Blancmange
7. Rodgrod (from Denmark)
8. Different fruit compote with ice cream

Sweet dishes with use of eggs-
1. All different types of mouse.
2. All different types of iced soufflés.
3. All different types of ice creams
4. All different types of Pastries.
5. All different types of cakes and gateaux
6. All different types of Bavarois.
7. Caramel Custard.
8. Baba au rhum.
9. Apfel Strudel.
Sweet dishes which are served hot-
1. Pineapple flambé
2. Banana flambé
3. Crepe suzette.

Savoury (Savoreux)

A savoury as an item indicates a savoury item served on varying shapes of toast in tartlets(round), in barquettes (oval), in bouchees, a quichelet etc. The term savoury also includes savoury soufflés and stuffed omelettes.

On lunch and dinner menu savoury is served as an alternative to sweet, while in a banquet it may be a course on its own coming between the sweet and the dessert. Ina full a la carte menu the savouries are listed in a section on their own.

Savouries on toast-

1. Anchovies on toast- Toast the bread and lay the anchovy fillets side by side. Trim the toast and finish with the heated oil from the anchovies. Decorate with sieved hard boiled egg yolk and chopped parsley.
2. Sardines on toast- Split sardines into half and remove the backbone. Lay head to tail on the toast and finish with oil from the sardine.
3. Roes on toast- Shallow fry the roes and dress on toast. Sprinkle with lemon juice, coat with beurre noisette and serve.
4. Mushrooms on toast- Peel, wash and slice mushrooms. Shallow fry and dress on toast. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.
5. Welsh Rarebit- Reduce 1/4th litre of beer to 1/8th . Mix into 1/8th litre of thin béchamel sauce. Stir in 118 gms of grated Cheddar. Season with salt, cayenne pepper and Worcestershire Sauce. Bind with a liason of 1 yolk. Pour onto fingers of toast and glaze.
6. Buck’s Rarebit- A Welsh Rarebit garnished with poached egg.

Savouries based on canapés-
These are shaped pieces of bread approximately 6mm in thickness, brushed with melted butter and placed under a salamander and colored on both sides.

1. Canape Baron- Garnish with slices of fried mushrooms, grilled bacon and poached bone marrow.
2. Canape Ritchie- Creamed haddock garnished with slices of hard boiled egg.
3. Canape Quo Vadis- Grilled roes garnished with small mushroom heads.
4. Angels on Horseback- Poached oysters wrapped with streaky bacon and grilled on skewers and served on a slice of toast.
5. Devils on horseback- Stoned cooked prunes stuffed with chutney and sprinkled with cayenne , wrapped with streaky bacon and grilled on skewers. Serve on a slice of toast. This is also called as Toast Menelick.

Savouries based on croutes-
1. Croute Derby- Spread with ham puree and garnished with pickled walnut.
2. Croute Windsor- Spread with ham puree and garnish with small grilled mushroom.
3. Scotch Woodcock- Scrambled egg garnished with trellis of anchovy and studded with capers.

Apart from the above mentioned savouries, savoury soufflés can also be served in the savoury course. The different examples are as under-
1. Cheese souffle.
2. Salmon soufflé.
3. Cauliflower and cheese soufflé.
4. Avocado and shrimp soufflé.
Also can be served in the savoury course are the stuffed omelettes like chicken omelette, mushroom and pepper omelette.

Finally all kinds of cheese can also be served in the savoury course.

This course comprises fresh fruits and nuts. It must be distinguished from sweet dishes which have been discussed earlier. The different examples of dessert are-

Fresh Fruit:
Fresh raspberry, strawberry, blueberry etc.
Apple, orange, pineapple, fresh mango.
Grapes, grapefruit, shaddock, pomello, Clementine etc.

Nuts: Almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, brazilnuts etc.

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